What Are The Known Flower Breeding Combinations?

Flower breeding is a process in which flower growers will alter the characteristics of specific flower species over time to produce new flowers. In its simplest term, breeding is the process of choosing the best plants or flowers and then growing them into a full seed and later on, use such particular seed to grow new generations of flower species with new colour or shape. Such selective breeding can change the overall genetic composition of flowers over time. The most important factor in breeding flowers is the genetic variation of a particular characteristic.

The popularity of Flower Breeding

In a typical garden store, you’ll find several different varieties of flowers that are cultivated for specific traits. Today’s diversity of flowers is mainly a result of modern genetic engineering and partly a result of flower breeding techniques. Cross-breeding flowers are done by deliberately taking pollen from one flower and then dusting it on to another. This might seem like basic horticulture. However, the process has been criticised by orthodox religious groups who are against the deliberate creation of new kinds of life. Many other social activists seem to be against the genetically engineered flora too. The debate is ongoing, and it is a rather subjective matter.
Today, flower breeding happens at a more rapid pace, simply because horticulturists can now possibly tinker at a molecular level. Quite often, a new variety of flower will not last more than a year or two before it will be superseded by something else. That is why when it comes to buying flowers, it is highly recommended to get fresh cut locally grown flowers. Those bunch of seasonal beauty will not last forever, but they will live long enough to colour your life with natural scent.  Look out for local florist such as Daily Blooms for reasonably priced, a fresh cut bouquet to your doorstep.

The recent popularity of flower breeding is a result of certain factors. Annualization of perennials could be one factor, and this has mainly risen because of the advent of annualized perennials that can be possibly grown from cuttings or seed and starts producing flowers on the first year. These flowers offer a distinct advantage compared to growers who can produce herbaceous perennials but are yet to domesticate and commercialize them. With flower breeding, there are more opportunities for flower breeders to be able to create new products quicker. Follow garden columnist Adrian Higgins on Twitter for beautiful hybrid flowers across the world.

Flower Breeding Techniques

Breeding plants or flowers to produce new varieties and improve the older types is a hobby that anyone can engage in. Flower breeders who are interested in learning a unique diversity of flower traits, including the shape and colour, will appreciate the process of flower breeding. You can manage to learn the techniques quickly and experiment with several different flower species that you want. Usually, beginners start off with species that are relatively easy to change, for instance, flower colour, size and shape. Nevertheless, although the techniques are pretty simple, there’s a possibility that you could end up producing unusual flowers.
Breeding can be a fun and rewarding experience for everyone who is into gardening. Simply arm yourself with the necessary skills for flower breeding and have some patience as well. Good observation is also important to be successful with this hobby. Check here to read about the birth of blue chrysanthemums by genetic engineering.  You do not need to have an ample sized room or a massive amount of space to start breeding new flowers. There are gardeners who were able to produce their ideal new flower in only the smallest area of their backyard gardens. In fact, flowers like geraniums, petunias, fuchsias, carnations, cosmos, pansies, lilies and many others can only be grown on container or pots and should not take up a lot of space.

Known Flower Breeding Combinations

For a start, you need to educate yourself of the flower breeding combinations that can lead to a successful result. Here are some of the best flower species you can start with.
<bCarnations – carnations may be a bit tricky since you can only get them during holidays. For instance, you can have red carnations for Father’s Day or pink carnations on Mother’s Day. The process of cross-breeding these flowers is pretty straightforward: red x pink = white.

Cosmos – these flowers are available in two generations. Pink and orange cosmos can be possibly obtained by pairing basic flowers. Here are the possible crossings you can make out of cosmos: red x yellow = orange; red x white = pink; orange x orange = black.

Lilies – these flowers only come in one generation. You might also find it difficult to source red lilies. Here are some possible crossings for these flowers: red x red = black; red x yellow = orange; red x white = pink

Pansies – pansies are among those three generation flower species, and you can expect to work at the third generation for several months or weeks. Here are some possible crossings: red x yellow = orange; white x white = blue; red x blue = red; red x red = purple.

Tulips – tulips are two generation flower species. Unfortunately, these flowers are not the easiest to grow. Here are some possible crossings of tulips: red x red = black; red x yellow = orange; red x white = pink; orange x orange = purple.

Violets – another flower species you can try for flower breeding is the violets. These flowers are so easy to crossbreed since they only have a single hybridization available. Thus, it’s great for first-timers: white x white = blue.
Be very observant as your flowers start growing. Go around your garden and look out for anything unusual, such as more petals than the usual, new variation of colour and size and difference on plant habit and height. If your garden receives plenty of sun, selective watering is also very useful.

Best place to buy custom made bridal gowns in Australia

Wedding planning involves putting together several components like in a jigsaw puzzle. More often than not, brides are also left with precious little time getting all these things organised. But, when it comes to buying vintage or custom made bridal gowns, thankfully, Australian brides have several options.

custom made gown

But, before you start exploring the options, you are better off doing some focused research and understand the basics. Alongside, you will also have to determine a budget to make the shopping experience quicker and hassle-free. Experience has shown that brides who work with a fixed budget can quickly narrow down to no more than 5 to 6 options and delve deeper into them. More importantly, not every bride is expensive vintage or custom made bridal gowns, and it is possible to buy your wedding gown at $1000 or perhaps even less. The extent of research you do and your ability to embellish your research with your creativity will ensure that you get that unique bridal gown with all the vow factors that you have always wanted.

  • Compared to conventional wedding gowns, vintage gowns also come with several advantages like: –
    Better quality of construction, particularly if you are looking at something from 1950 or earlier.
  • More styles for you to choose from
  • Overall uniqueness

Coloured wedding gowns are making a come back

bride in peach gown

Come to think of it; there is no known rule which says that brides should wear only white gowns on their wedding day. In fact, it was only in mid 18th century that the white bridal dress came into vogue following Queen Victoria who chose white as a less expensive bridal wear since colours were dyed and more expensive. Before that green, deep red, purple and even black were acceptable colours for bridal wear. Therefore, if you are looking for truly unique wedding gowns, you will find amazing selections when you focus on vintage wedding gowns. In choosing colours for your wedding gown, considering your skin tone is a great idea too. Stark white is best for brides who have dark hairs and dark skin. For the fair skinned with redheads, Ivory works better. Very warm/Champagne dresses are ideal for nearly every skin tone.

Focus on areas that can be remedied and those that cannot be

Some of the deal-breakers in choosing vintage bridal gowns include:-

  • Underarm Stains
  • Stains on satin
  • Tears on areas other than a seam, mainly when you are looking at chiffon fabric
  • Plenty of tears/breaks in lace
  • Faded crepe/rayon fabric
  • Stains on crepe/rayon fabric


And, here is a selection of the best places to shop for vintage bridal gowns in Australia:

Jason Grech

For brides looking for high-end celebrity-inspired wedding dresses, Jason Grech is the designer to see. Jason is an Australian couture brand that meets and exceeds brides expectations. Today, Jason Grech has carved out its space in metropolitan Melbourne positioning itself as the best couture house. Jason Grech creations are also intimately Australian because the brand draws its inspiration from Melbourne itself.


Floravere has launched a direct-to-customer line which allows you to try samples of affordable wedding dresses for which you pay $45 but get a reimbursement when you purchase a bridal dress. Once a selection is made, then you customize the dress for the perfect fit. Prices for the Floravere range start from $1550 and can get closer to $3500.

Kite and Butterfly

Kite is inspired by the Parisian style with a mix of bohemian aesthetic. The label is owned by Australian sisters, and they employ materials like French lace for crafting timeless and beautiful gowns. Most of their creations border the traditional looks of the Aussie bride and therefore if you after something classic, Kite and Butterfly is a good option. Price range for this label is between $1,000 and $2,000.


bride wearing hairband

ASOS is familiar to most brides as the online retailer for jeans and tees, and this British e-tailer has now opened an in-house bridal line. The brand is also offering a range of accessories including pearl earrings, crown headbands in faux pearl and lingerie to match the perfect dress. Most of the gowns offered by ASOS are pretty much affordable with prices pegging below the $300 mark with many of them closer to $200.


If you are keen on exploring a wide range of options, you should consider BHLDN. From art deco maxi gowns to boho gowns, there is an impressive range to explore, and you can work on price points starting at $300 and going right up to $2,000. The label also deals with a range of wedding accessories that could come in handy on the big day.


If you are keen on exploring options that are insanely affordable, you cannot afford to miss the Missguided. You will find sequin striped dresses for just $153 and simple, classic wedding style for under $70.


Stone Fox Bride

Modern brides are gravitating towards fewer veils and less floral crowns. You can order a range of affordable wedding dress online from Stone Fox Bride for prices starting at $2,000. Alternatively, if you happen to be in New York, you can get into the brand’s showroom to try a slip dress priced around $800.

Self Portrait

Self Portrait dresses have been patronised by many top celebrities in recent times. You can choose between Han Chong’s short mesh and crepe fabric mini dresses for under $300 or pick one from the bridal collection newly launched at about $1,000.

Lace and Liberty

Lace and Liberty are specialists in bridal dresses including mix-and-match skirts and tops and a range of accessories. A ‘try on’ box is also available at $45 including accessories. When you place an order, the cost of the ‘try on’ pack is deducted. The price range is between $350 and $1,600.


Topshop, the well known British retailer, has recently launched a bridal collection. The prices start at $650 for the bridal collection and $160 for bridesmaid dresses. Though not much details have been known yet, you can expect some out-of-the-ordinary collection, particularly latent entry of the brand into the bridal wear segment.

Best Garden Landscaping Tips for Winter Season in Australia

sonny winner garden

Winter is coming. Well yes, it’s happening right now. Where winter season brings the cozy cold nights, gatherings by the fire and loads of fun stuff in its baggage, a lot of different things are waiting for you to cater in your garden landscaping too. Here are the best garden landscaping tips for all the Aussies to curate their garden/ lawn this winter season.

1. Winter Crops

For the residents of Northern NSW and South-east Queensland, the subtropical area, plantation broccoli, onion, lettuce, radish, turnips, spinach, and peas will be great. In the temperate regions of Sydney, Victoria, and coastal NSW, plantation of green beans, peas, and English spinach suits the best. In a dry area, tomato, broccoli, shallot, radish cauliflower, onion, and lettuce will fruit perfectly. In the Mediterranean parts of the Australia, including Perth and Adelaide, plantation of citrus fruits, olive and avocado trees is the best by the end of March. Here you can find more about plants and to decide which are suitable for your garden.

2. Pest Control in Winter

In winter season garden pests find salvage in the garden, so the start of this season is the best time to get rid of the pests by thoroughly attacking their small hideouts at your place. If not taken care at the right time, then these can grow wildly in the spring season and can go out of control, ruining the plants all over.

The best thing to do is a thorough clean-up of your garden to start off. Most of the pests hibernate around big trees in the form of cocoons and plan to reside there for the whole season. For example, hiding places of moth cocoons are generally found near the pear, pear or another sweet fruit tree. To get rid of these pests, a detailed cleaning of all the area is required which require trashing out any loose bark, or any infected fruit that shows signs of contamination. Some fruit trees, such as of loquat, are found to the perfect place for fruit fly population maturation in the cold winter season. For this pest, the spray is essentially important, and you must keep a thorough check on the trees regularly. Similarly, pests also get attracted towards vibrant and juicy strawberry plants. So, as soon as the winter season commences, be ready to do some pest control in your garden with safety use.

3. Less Watering of the Potted Plants

Watering of the plants is essentially important regardless of their type, or the season. But you have to be water-wise. As plants require a lesser amount of water in the winter season than they require in the hot summer weather. Another thing to consider is that potted plants must not retain water for a long time. Retaining water, firstly, is not needed by the plant, and secondly, it invites pests to grow.

4. Do not Add Chilling Water

Plants are living beings, so it’ll be wise to add slightly warm temperature in chilling winters. It will be great for the growth of the plant if you check the temperature of the water. Tap water is chilling cool in this winter season, so mix it up with hot water and add a little warm water to the plants. Adding water to any extreme temperatures can shock the roots of the plants, so be wise while watering in winters.

5. Weed Control Before start of the Rainfall

Cool breezes of chilling winter, foggy nights, and heavy rains go hand in hand. While this cool season feels awesome snuggle inside the home, a whole lot of weed also start showing itself all over the garden. So, before you put your blanket on, let’s get to work first. Following the dry autumn season, raining season brings the most favorable conditions for weeds to grow fast. So, it’s important that you get rid of them as soon as possible before they get mature and start seeding. As once they start seeding, it’ll be hard to control years long weeding. If you have a small garden then hand weeding is the best option to take them away because the soil is softer and it can be easily removed from the roots. In case of larger area, use hoes or tillers. If you are still unsure of their complete removal, then use chemical control.

6. Winter Pruning

Adding to your to-do-list this winter season is surely the pruning of plants. The basic purpose of pruning is to wide open all the different parts of the plants, so that whole plant receives equal sunshine and warmth from the rays. This way fruit-bearing plants will not only remain away from any fungal attack but will also grow very well.
The young deciduous fruit trees must be pruned in the winters, otherwise, they can get infected or diseased. Pruning will help these trees to grow to manageable size. Apricot is an exception in this regard, as it is not that much prone to get diseased or infected as others.
Flower-bearing ornamental plants must also be pruned in winters. But be vigilant while doing that, as do not cut before the flowering period ends.

Hydrangea stem pruning will also be done. Cut those stems which have not bear any flower in the previous year, but leave the new one and wait for it to flower in the next season.
Prune out old wood, prune back the shrubs and make room for new healthy flowering buds and leaves to grow in the next season.
Coming to rose, which needs a special pruning treatment in the winter season, prunes it any time starting from July and fertilize the soil for good root growth. This will increase their flower bearing capacity for the coming spring season.

7. Position Your Plants Accordingly

Sun in the sky of Australia usually shines in the Northern part, and keep on moving far north as the winter season progress. So, if your plantation resides on the Southern side of your home, then plants will get scarce sunlight in this cool weather. Plants will have to survive extremely cold conditions and foggy nights of winters, so you must position them where they can receive as much sunshine as possible.